- What is saturation voltage?
- What is hard saturation?
- How do you know if a transistor is NPN or PNP?
- What is NPN and PNP transistor?
- What does it mean to say that a transistor is saturated?
- How do you know if a transistor is saturated?
- What do you mean by saturation region?
- What is saturation voltage of a transistor?
- What is hard saturation and soft saturation?
- Is VBE always 0.7 V?
- How do you tell if a transistor is on or off?
- Which transistor is best for switching?
What is saturation voltage?
saturation voltage, collector-emitter (VCE(sat)) The voltage between the collector and emitter terminals under conditions of base current or base-emitter voltage beyond which the collector current remains essentially constant as the base current or voltage is increased..
What is hard saturation?
Hard saturation is when the transistor operates in the saturation region under all operating conditions. Remember that the current gain changes as the operating conditions such as temperature, and collector current, change.
How do you know if a transistor is NPN or PNP?
Steps to identify the NPN type transistor:Keep the Multimeter in the Diode mode.Keep the positive probe to the center pin (Base) of the transistor.Touch the negative probe to the pin-1 (Emitter). … Similarly touch the negative probe to the pin-3 (collector) with respect to the pin-2.More items…•
What is NPN and PNP transistor?
In an NPN transistor, a positive voltage is given to the collector terminal to produce a current flow from the collector to the emitter. In a PNP transistor, a positive voltage is given to the emitter terminal to produce current flow from the emitter to collector.
What does it mean to say that a transistor is saturated?
A transistor is saturated when the collector-emitter voltages s around 0.3V, with a current through the collector, and that voltage drop cannot get any lower. You can imagine that, since the collector voltage is lower than the base voltage, the diode from base to collector starts to conduct.
How do you know if a transistor is saturated?
How to know if a Transistor is Saturated – Through Actual Testing. You can conclude the operation of a transistor if it is saturated or not by doing actual measurement. Monitor the collector-emitter voltage of your circuit with a DMM. If the reading is below 0.3V, the transistor is at saturation.
What do you mean by saturation region?
Transistor in Saturation region Saturation region is one in which both Emitter Base and Base Collector junctions of the transistor are forward biased. In this region high currents flows through the transistor, as both junctions of the transistor are forward biased and bulk resistance offered is very much less.
What is saturation voltage of a transistor?
“Saturation” in a transistor switch circuit is achieved when the voltage across the collector/ emitter (VCE(sat)) is less than or equal to . 1 to . 3 volts – depending on the type of transistor. At that voltage point, the transistor appears to act like a simple SPST mechanical switch that has been closed (On).
What is hard saturation and soft saturation?
Hard saturation is when the transistor operates in the saturation region under all operating conditions. … Hence, engineers usually choose a base resistance that produces a current gain of 10 (hFE=10) to ensure that the transistor goes deep into hard saturation.
Is VBE always 0.7 V?
VBE is the voltage that falls between the base and emitter of a bipolar junction transistor. VBE is approximately 0.7V for a silicon transistor. For a germanium transistor (which is more rare), VBE is approximately 0.3V. Again, this formula, can be used for either silicon or germanium transistors.
How do you tell if a transistor is on or off?
To find out which mode a PNP transistor is in, reverse all of the < and > signs. For example, to put a PNP into saturation VC and VE must be higher than VB. You pull the base low to turn the PNP on, and make it higher than the collector and emitter to turn it off.
Which transistor is best for switching?
Best Transistors: BJTs#1 NPN – 2N3904. You can find most often NPN Transistors in low-side switch circuits. … #2 PNP – 2N3906. For high-side switch circuits, you need a PNP style BJT. … #3 Power – TIP120. … #4 N-Channel (Logic Level) – FQP30N06L.